Usually, the steam sent into the mains is not much above saturation temperature. The term â€śback-pressureâ€ť for back pressure turbines refers to turbines that exhaust steam at atmospheric pressures and above. The specific CHP application establishes the discharge pressure. 50, 150, and 250 psig are the mostÂ typical pressure levels for steam distribution systems. District heating systems most often use the lower pressures, and industrial processes use the higher pressures.
Industrial processes often include further expansion for mechanical drives, using small steam turbines for driving heavyÂ equipment that runs continuously for long periods.Â Power generationÂ capability reduces significantly when steam is used at appreciable pressure rather than being expanded to vacuum in a condenser. Discharging steam into a steam distribution system at 150 psig can sacrifice slightly more than half the power that could be generated when the inlet steam conditions are 750 psig and 800Â°F, typical ofÂ small steam turbineÂ systems.Â The steam turbine operates on basic principles ofÂ thermodynamicsÂ using the part of theÂ Rankine cycle.
Â Condensing steam turbines are most commonly found in electrical power plants. These steam turbineÂ exhaust steam in a partially condensed state, typically of aÂ qualityÂ near 90%, at a pressure well below atmospheric to a condenser. Â The steam turbine operates on basic principles ofÂ thermodynamicsÂ using the part of theÂ Rankine cycle.Â SuperheatedÂ vapor (or dry saturated vapor, depending on application) enters the turbine, after it having exited the boiler, at high temperature and high pressure.
The high heat/pressure steam is converted into kinetic energy using a nozzle (a fixed nozzle in an impulse type turbine or the fixed blades in a reaction type turbine). Once the steam has exited the nozzle it is moving at high velocity and is sent to the blades of the turbine. A force is created on the blades due to the pressure of the vapor on the blades causing them to move.A generator or other such device can be placed on the shaft, and the energy that was in the vapor can now be stored and used. The gas exits the turbine as a saturated vapor (or liquid-vapor mix depending on application) at a lower temperature and pressure than it entered with and is sent to the condenser to be cooled.Â If we look at the first law we can find an equation comparing the rate at which work is developed per unit mass.